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Pain glossary

Opioids: Opioids are pain relievers derived from the poppy plant and are among the oldest drugs. Opioids are an essential option for treating moderate to severe pain associated with surgery or trauma, and for pain related to cancer. Examples include morphine, codeine, oxycodone and buprenorphine.

Osteoarthritis (OA): The most common form of joint disease that often affects middle-aged to elderly people. OA is characterized by breakdown of the cartilage (the tissue that cushions the ends of the bones between joints), bony changes of the joints, deterioration of tendons and ligaments, and various degrees of inflammation of the joint lining.

Over-the-counter (OTC): OTC describes medications that are considered safe and effective for use by the general public, so they are accessible even without a doctor’s prescription.